This course will provide students with a review of the fundamentals of aqueous process chemistry with applications on the minerals and metals industries, including aqueous equilibria, speciation, solubility, complexation, redox equilibria, stability diagrams and heterogeneous kinetics for dissolution and precipitation/crystallization of inorganic compounds and minerals.

**Learning Outcomes**

The objective is that at the end of this course the student will be able to:

- Understand the basics of the physical chemistry of water and aqueous solutions and predict the behaviour of aqueous systems within a wide range of temperature
- Use and learn chemical process modelling tools and software for inorganic aqueous systems (mineral – water solutions)
- Perform solution speciation calculations including pH calculations
- Calculate the solubility of inorganic compounds in multicomponent solutions
- Balance redox reactions
- Use Eh-pH diagrams to identify operating windows for mineral dissolution or compound precipitation
- Use stability diagrams to draw conceptual process flow diagrams
- Describe heterogeneous kinetics using appropriate kinetic models, such as the shrinking core model for dissolution reactions
- Understand the fundamentals of compound precipitation and crystallization from aqueous solutions

This course provides a working knowledge of modern electrochemistry. The topics dealt with include, the physical chemistry of electrolyte solutions, ion transport in solution, ionic conductivity,

electrode equilibrium, reference electrodes, electrode kinetics, heat effects in electrochemical cells, electrochemical energy conversion (fuel cells and batteries), and industrial electrochemical processes. Numerous problems are provided to clarify the concepts**.**

**Instructor:** D. Kirk

This course is intended for graduate students who don’t have an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering. A high level introduction to the underlying principles of chemical engineering for students who do not have a chemical engineering undergraduate education. Principles will be illustrated through both research examples and classical chemical engineering situations.

**Students with an undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering or Chemical Engineering are excluded from this course**

**Instructor:** G. Allen

**Textbooks:**

B.C. Gates, Introductory Elements of Analysis and Design in Chemical Engineering, CRC Press, 2024. Required ‘short’ book available as pdf from UofT Library

**Other References**:

W.L. McCabe, J. C. Smith and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed, McGraw-Hill, 2005

The following may be used for specific sections of the course:

R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd ed, Wiley, 2005

C.J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes: Momentum, Heat and Mass, Alllyn and Bacon Inc., 1983.

J. D. Seader and E. J. Henley, Separation Process Principles, Wiley, 2nd ed, 1998

R. W. Missen, C. A. Mims and B. A. Saville, Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering and Kinetics, Wiley, 1999

T.W. Russell, A. S. Robinson and N. J. Wagner, Mass and Heat Transfer, Cambridge, 2008

**Learning Outcomes:**

By the end of this course, each student should be able to:

- Have a general understanding of the chemical engineering mindset and how it compares to the basic sciences, particularly chemistry and biology
- Understand and apply the control volume approach to material and energy flows in batch and continuous chemical and biochemical systems
- Understand the concepts of flux (conductive & convective) and driving force for heat, mass and momentum transfer
- Understand the concepts of unit operations and flux as they pertain to momentum, heat and mass transfer.
- Understand the concept of steady state and its contrast to equilibrium
- Understand some key dimensionless numbers and how they can be applied in chemical engineering practice
- Understand the different idealized reactor types (CSTR, PFR) and how they can impact reactor performance
- Understand some common separation processes and some basic design relations
- Develop an appreciation for estimation and engineering judgement and concepts such as rate limiting step, bounded solutions, order of magnitude, size, etc.
- Have a general understanding of how chemical engineering principles can be applied to solve important global problems
- Develop an understanding of the connection between concepts of heat and mass transport and their analogies with concepts of electrical resistance and current in electrical systems

Successful completion of your graduate program relies on strong research, critical thinking and communication skills. These qualities will continue to help you achieve success whether you enter industry or pursue a career in academia. This course provides training in these areas while focusing on your current research project, simultaneously providing you with future training and immediately applicable strategies to help you complete your thesis research project. Through facilitated activity-based tutorials you will develop your research and project management skills, acquire strategies to identify and articulate a research hypothesis, set research goals and plan your research approach (including quantification of results and validation of quantitative metrics) and share research findings via oral, written and graphical communication.

**Instructor:** A. McGuigan

**Learning Outcomes**

Through this course you will learn how to:

- Define a research problem and justify why it is important
- Effectively design, plan, and conduct a (research) experiment and project
- Effectively communicate the rationale, results and conclusions of a project
- Develop confidence in identifying/making key strategic decisions for your thesis
- Develop a strategic plan for your graduate education and transition into the work force

**Project(s):**

Research Project (written outline; graphic of experimental design plan; oral presentation).

Review of basic modelling leading to algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Models leading to partial differential equations. Vector analysis. Transport equations. Solution of equations by: Separation of variables, Laplace Transformation, Green’s Functions, Method of Characteristics, Similarity Transformation, others time permitting. Practical illustrations and exercises applied to fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, reactor engineering, environmental problems and biomedical systems. Lecture notes provided.

**Instructor: **R. Farnood

**Recommended/Other Text(s):**

Basmadjian and R. Farnood, “The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica”, 2nd Ed., Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2006. *(recommended)*

**Learning Outcomes:** Handling ODEs & PDEs as applied to scientific and engineering problems.

**Projects:**

Final Project

- Each student should find /choose a suitable 'problem' that can be formulated as a PDE and solved analytically using the methods we covered in our lectures. The problem ideally should be from a scientific paper, but alternatively it may be designed based on your thesis research topic.
- You need to formulate an exam question based on the problem you have selected. The exam question should include a detailed statement that is clear and unambiguous, and also include an appropriate diagram.
- You need to solve the problem in detail, analytically.
- You need to prepare a project report that should include: a) the exam question that you designed, b) the detailed solution, and c) a copy of the source / literature you used.

The purpose of this course is to introduce a first year graduate level numerical methods course with an emphasis on applications in chemical engineering. The course will consist of three main topic areas relevant to chemical engineering, namely: 1) numerical integration, 2) optimization and 3) solution of partial differential equations. The skills developed for numerical integration are fundamental to many more complex problems in numerical methods relevant to chemical engineering. In this course, we will first focus on the solution of initial value problems (IVP) of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) as this is a building block for advanced numerical integration. Many chemical engineering problems require the solution of ODE-IVPs, most prominently, chemical reaction kinetics and simple fluid flow problems. Next, we will introduce basic concepts in numerical optimization. Numerical optimization is another fundamental tool utilized by numerical methods analysts and there are many chemical engineering problems that require the use of numerical optimization. Some examples include the prediction of the geometry of a molecule, optimization of plant processes and optimal control. Finally, we will explore numerical methods for solving PDEs. PDEs are fundamental to chemical engineering processes and in all but some very simple cases, numerical methods are required to arrive at approximate solutions. Classical examples in chemical engineering include fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer.

The course covers adsorption, the nature of the catalyst surface, kinetics of catalytic reactions, catalyst selection and preparation, deactivation and poisoning, and specific catalytic reactions. The types of reactions and the examples considered will depend to some extent on the particular interests of those selecting the course but will include, in any case, nitrogen fixation, Cl chemistry, catalysis in petroleum refining (cracking, reforming, alkylation, hydrorefining, etc.), and catalysis by transition metal complexes.

An introduction and overview of bioenergy production technologies, including: first generation biochemical technologies to produce biofuels (e.g, from sugarcane, starch, and oilseeds). The course will then describe second generation technologies to produce biofuels (e.g., from lignocellulosics) followed by advanced technologies as well as the so-called “drop-in fuels.” It will include the theory and process aspects of hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel. An overview of fuel properties will also be given. Finally the course will conclude with environmental impacts – benefits and issues, economic aspects as well as infrastructure requirements and trade-offs.

**Instructor:** B. Saville

**Course Outline:**

1. Course introduction

a. Context for liquid fuels; role of liquid biofuels; why not electric?

b. First generation ethanol, AKA ethanol from starch or sugarcane

c. First generation biodiesel

2. Lignocellulosic biofuels and bioproducts

a. Biomass pretreatment

b. Enzyme Hydrolysis

c. Fermentation

3. Catalysis to produce alkanes and liquid biofuels

a. Pathways to renewable diesel

b. Pathways to renewable jet fuel

c. Pathways to renewable gasoline

4. Thermochemical processes

a. Pyrolysis, bio-oils

b. Gasification, DME

5. Life cycle assessment

a. GHG emissions

b. Land use impacts

c. Case studies

6. Policies and economics

a. Mandates

b. Policies tied to GHG reductions

**Evaluation:**

Assignments (2): 25%

Research paper proposal 2%

Research paper/project 33%

Final evaluation 40%

Components of biological networks, their biochemical properties and function along with the technology used for obtaining component lists will be emphasized. Top-down and bottom-up approach to modeling and reconstruction of chemical reaction networks along with biochemical networks, such as metabolic networks, regulatory networks and signaling networks from data will be presented. Mathematical models of reconstructed reaction networks, and simulation of their emergent properties will be studied. The course will also cover classical kinetic theory, network simulation methods and constraints-based models of biochemical networks. Multi-scale modeling methods that integrate multiple cellular processes at different time and length scales will be emphasized. Existing biological models will be described and computations performed. Iterative methods for discovering novel biological function through comparison of model predictions and experimental data will be discussed in the context of Systems Biology and Bioengineering. PREREQ: Engineering Biology, Calculus, Differential Equations.

Radiation chemistry is the study of the chemical effects of electromagnetic radiation, radioactive particles, and fission fragments. Radiochemistry is concerned with the chemistry of molecules that incorporate radioactive atoms. This introductory course aims at explaining the physical and chemical mechanisms of radiation-related phenomena encountered in science and engineering. The following topics are covered: radiation physics; chemical effects of ionizing radiation on matter including radiolytic processes in gases and aqueous solutions; radioactivity; elements of radiochemistry including the synthesis of radioisotopically labeled compounds, isotopic exchange reactions, applications; hot-atom chemistry, and the chemical effects of nuclear transformations.

This course, designed for graduate students whose research is at the interface of Engineering and Biology, will review recent advances in molecular and analytical methods relevant to bioprocess engineering, environmental microbiology and biotechnology, biomedical engineering, and other related topics. Following fundamental instruction on specific molecular and analytical methods, students will be required to prepare a critical review of chosen, peer reviewed articles that demonstrate the utility of discussed methods for the advancement of bioengineering concepts and applications. Discussion of the scientific, technological, environmental, economic, legal, and ethical impacts of the research will follow.

**Instructor:** E. Master

This second-level course in reactor design and analysis focuses upon the following topics: multiphase kinetics and catalysis; simultaneous diffusion and reaction, including an analysis using effectiveness factors and Thiele modulus; analysis of models of complex flow and mixing in reactors; reactor modelling; reactor performance and stability of operation for simple and complex kinetic schemes; design considerations for heterogeneous reactors; industrial and research applications of chemical reactors.

This course has the objective of reviewing the basic concepts of thermodynamics with specific applications to processes involving phase equilibrium or equilibrium in chemical reactions. The course is divided in three parts. In the first part we will review the laws of thermodynamics, and the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of pure substances. In the second part we will review the thermodynamic properties in mixtures and multiphase equilibria in non-reactive systems. In the last part of the course we will review the energy balance and equilibrium in chemical reactions. The evaluation will consist of a midterm at the end of the review section, and a final exam that will evaluate the last two parts of the course. This course also involves a term project where the student uses some of these concepts in a specific example related to his/her thesis project.

Einstein notation, Diffusive Fluxes and Material Properties, Conservation equations for heat and mass transfer, Heat and mass transfer at interfaces, Order of magnitude estimation and scaling, One-dimensional examples, Solution methods, Similarity solutions, Solution methods for linear problems (eigenfunction expansions), Conservation of momentum, Hydrostatics, Viscous stresses, Fluid mechanics at interfaces, Streamfunction, Unidirectional and nearly unidirectional flows, Lubrication theory, Creeping flows, High Reynolds number flows, Momentum, Concentration and Thermal Boundary layers, and if time permits, Perturbation methods.

**Instructor:** A. Ramchandran

**Required Text(s):**

*Analysis of Transport Phenomena*by William M. Deen. ISBN-13: 978-0199740284. Publisher: Oxford University Press.

**Recommended/Other Text(s):**

*Transport Phenomena*by R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart, Edwin N. Lightfoot ISBN-13: 978-0470115398, Publisher: Wiley.*An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics*by G. K. Batchelor, ISBN-13: 978-0521663960, Publisher: Cambridge University Press*Advanced Transport Phenomena: Fluid Mechanics and Convective Transport Processes*by L. Gary Leal, ISBN-13: 978-0521179089, Publisher: Cambridge University Press.*Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer*by Welty, Wicks, Wilson and Rorrer, 5th Edition. ISBN: 978-0-470-12868-8, Publisher: Wiley.

**Prerequisites:** Undergraduate vector and multivariable calculus (e.g. divergence, curl, Gauss divergence theorem, etc.), analytical methods for solving differential equations, numerical methods for finding zeroes and solving ODEs, programming in some language (preferably MATLAB).

**Learning Outcomes:** At the end of the course, you should be able to:

- Formulate the mathematical equations for transport of heat, mass and momentum for a given physical situation
- Physically interpret mathematical terms in a transport equation
- Identify the scales for various variables in a physical transport problem, and render transport equations dimensionless to deduce the important physical processes in the problem
- Arrive at approximate forms of transport equations, and recognize the error associated with these approximate forms
- Obtain analytical solutions to scaled transport equations in certain asymptotic limits
- Set up transport equations for solution in commercially available solvers (e.g. COMSOL).

This course is designed to introduce you to the foundational concepts and practical applications of data mining or data science to transform data into meaningful insights. The course begins by teaching students how to define engineering, scientific, or business problems within an algorithmic framework. Concurrently, students will learn the basics of Python programming, focusing on data cleaning and processing techniques. The curriculum also covers fundamental machine learning methods, empowering students to apply these techniques to solve real-life problems. The course encompasses diverse disciplines, including chemical, pharmaceutical, manufacturing, medical, research and development, and marketing. Multiple examples are provided, and students actively solve problems within these fields.

**Instructor:** N. Anesiadis

This course is designed to equip students with cutting-edge skills in big data processing and advanced analytics. The first part of the course focuses on Apache Spark, a powerful big data processing and computing engine, enabling students to handle and analyze large datasets efficiently. In the second part, the course delves into special topics in analytics, including advanced data visualization, model and data quality, interpretable and fair machine learning, and MLOps. Through this comprehensive curriculum, students will gain a deep understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of data science, preparing them for successful careers in this rapidly evolving field.

**Instructor:** N. Anesiadis

This is a basic course on technologies used for Produced Water in the resource sector. The course will cover theory and practice of membranes (UF, NF, RO), ion exchange, lime softening, demineralization, and filtration as applied in this sector. The lecture material delivered by professionals in the field will be supplemented by a hands-on project operating a triple membrane water treatment system.

**Instructor:** N. DeMartini

**Required Text(s):**

- MWH’s Water Treatment: Principles and Design – 3rd Edition, revised by John C. Crittenden et al., 2005

**Learning Outcomes:**

This course is an opportunity to explore the industrial application of water technologies.

**Project(s):**

You will be asked to pick a topic of interest, find and read three relevant journal articles (or equivalent, ex. book chapters). The last day of class each student will give a 3 min presentation with time for 1-2 questions.

This is a multidisciplinary course that provides the necessary components, concepts and frameworks of sustainability and its relation to engineering projects. It introduces the basic ideas of systems thinking that are used to understand and model complex problems, such as input, output, control, feedback, boundary and hierarchy. It then describes sustainability as a complex challenge of interacting technical, social, economic and environmental systems, and introduces systemic sustainability frameworks such as The Natural Step. It then focuses on the sustainability of organizations and the standards (e.g. ISO 26000 and GRI) that can help design effective sustainability improvement initiatives and strategies. A primary focus of the course is on life cycle assessment (LCA) and related standards (ISO14044, ISO14025) as a tool to understand the broad impacts of engineering projects, unit processes, products and services and the inevitable trade-offs in design decisions. Specific process case studies are examined related to chemical engineering and their relation to promoting a circular economy, including recycling of energy and material flows. Finally, the course presents the economic aspect of sustainability and how to create the business case to secure the support of decision makers in the implementation of sustainable processes in organizations.

The following topics amongst others, are treated: the various types and forms of corrosion, electrochemical theories of corrosion, corrosion testing methods, corrosion behaviour of iron, steel, and other common engineering metals, corrosion of steel and aluminum in reinforced concrete, passivity, atmospheric corrosion, underground corrosion, seawater corrosion, effects of stress, corrosion in the chemical process industries, the use of Pourbaix diagrams and methods of corrosion protection and control (selection of materials, coatings, corrosion inhibitors, cathodic protection, anodic protection). A number of problems (with worked solutions) are provided to clarify the concepts.

This graduate course will cover modern methods of polymer synthesis and characterization, structure-property relationships, chemical modification of polymers, thermal behaviour and rheology, self-assembly, hydrogels, and related topics. Emphasis will be given to areas of current academic and industrial interest within polymer science, including analysis of recent scholarly literature and novel polymer-based commercial technologies.

**Pre-requisite: ** CHE562H1: Applied Chemistry IV – Applied Polymer Chemistry, Science and Engineering (or equivalent).

Overview of principles of nanoengineering for biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. This course will study the formulation and manufacturing processes for producing nanomaterials for medical applications; pharmacokinetics, biocompatibility, immunogenicity of nanomaterials. The course will also introduce the basic theories underlying nanomaterials design, and some properties of nanomaterials which are useful for biomedical device design.

**Instructor:** F. Gu

**Recommended Text(s):**

- The elements of polymer science and engineering. 2nd Edition. By Rudin A. Academic Press. 1999.
- Nanoparticle technology for drug delivery. Edited by Gupta RB, and Kompella UB. Taylor and Francis Group. 2006.
- Applied biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics. By Shargel L, Wu-Pong S, and Yu ABC. McGraw Hill. 2004.
- Intermolecular and Surface Forces. 3rd Edition. By Israelachvili, J. Elsevier. 2011.
- The HLB system, a time saving guide to surfactant selection. Presentation to the Midwest chapter of the Society of
- Cosmetic Chemists. March 9th 2004. lotioncrafter.com/pdf/The_HLB_System.pdf

**Learning Outcomes:**

- Apply fundamentals of polymer science to engineer nanoparticles with desired physicochemical properties.
- Explain the mechanisms our body uses to interact with nanobiomaterials.
- Integrate physiology and metabolic engineering principles to determine the pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles.
- Design scalable formulations and manufacturing processes to produce nanomaterials for biomedical applications.
- Select appropriate assays to determine the efficacy and safety of nanomaterials according to the guidelines set
- by the regulatory agencies.
- Communicate through report and learn new knowledge through peer-reviewed publications.

This graduate course will focus on the latest developments in the field of Organ-on-a-Chip Engineering, with a specific focus on Organ-on-a-Chip Industry. Topics related to on-chip engineering of heart, kidney, cancer, vasculature and liver will be discussed.

**Instructor:** M. Radisic

This course introduces the composition, methods of production and characterization, and uses of colloidal systems, including suspensions, emulsions, foams, aerosols and gels. The thermodynamic-based and kinetic-based theories of colloid formation and stability are introduced. The hydrodynamics of colloids and complex fluids is also discussed along with the connection between colloid composition, its rheological properties, its mass transfer properties and the connection between these properties and the performance of colloid-based products. The course will also introduce fundamental concepts towards characterization emulsion structures using light scattering, microscopy and spectroscopy. Finally, the chemistry and formulation principles of colloid-based products is also revised, in particularly the selection of solvents, surfactants, and polymers required.

**Instructor: ** E. Acosta

The course focus in on metals recovery from mineral recourses by hydrometallurgical technology. Ore formation, geology and mineralogy is reviewed. Mining techniques are also briefly reviewed and generic hydrometallurgy flowsheets are discussed. Mineral upgrading methods are discussed followed by leaching fundamentals (chemistry-thermodynamics-kinetrics), including bioleaching technology, and equipment. Solid-liquid separation and solution purification techniques such as by chemical precipitation, ion exchange and solvent extraction are also discussed. Examples from pure metal recovery and effluent treatment; residue disposal technologies for environmental compliance are presented. Finally, process development, plant design, plant control strategies, Economic, Social and Environmental Considerations, followed by several industrial examples is offered.

The goals of the course will be to: (a) understand fundamental concepts and principles of environmental auditing; (b) understand relevant federal and provincial environmental legislation; (c) understand environmental management system and similar standards; (d) improve audit skills and knowledge of principles; (e) understand the Environmental Management System (EMS) auditing and certification/registration process. The course will be structured to provide sufficient background in the concepts of environmental management, due diligence, environmental protection, and the process of auditing these topics for verification purposes. The course material will be presented in a combination of lecture and workshop formats.

Environmental regulations are based on the existence and/or likely occurrence of adverse effects. This course will examine the legal definitions of adverse effects and present possible scientific methods that can be used to establish the presence/absence of adverse effects. The specific regulations for Air, Waste, Contaminated Sites, and Water will then be examined to establish scientific methodologies that can be applied to show compliance with the letter and intent of the regulations. Particular emphases will be placed on the existence of variable scientific interpretations of the key general statements in the respective regulations.

The goal of the course will be to provide the students with an understanding of the fundamental principles of air quality modelling, the use of screening and advanced air dispersion models, as well as the limitations of these tools in actual practice. The course will also address other relevant air quality related subjects such as ambient monitoring and dispersion model verification. The course will be structured to provide sufficient background in dispersion modelling theory to allow the users to make informed decisions on model inputs, modelling methodologies and approximations. The course will feature both theory sessions as well as hands on training in the use of dispersion models (US EPA SCREEN 3 and AERMOD models) and data processing.

Six Sigma is a proven process improvement methodology currently being employed across nearly every type of business and industry including numerous Chemical Process Industry companies. Design for Six Sigma (DfSS) has been developed more recently with the goal to apply the Six Sigma principles to the design of new products and processes. This course will also provide a working know-how of the Six Sigma problem solving and process improvement protocol (DMAIC). It is based on the lecturer’s own experience as a double Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma and Design for Lean Six Sigma at Xerox Research Centre of Canada. This course will include examples and case studies in order to show the students the practical value of Six Sigma in the chemical and related industries. The students will use themselves Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma process and statistical tools to solve problems and explore designing new chemical process in workshops that will be part of each class.

This course is concerned with physical and chemical properties of aerosols and their impacts on earth’s climate, air quality and human health. This course will cover the fundamentals of aerosol physics and chemistry, and relate these principles to the overall impacts. The first section will cover single particle processes (particle drag, gravitational settling, diffusion) and evolution of an aerosol population (new particle formation, condensation and coagulation, deposition and cloud droplet formation). In the second section, the various components in atmospheric aerosol will be discussed in detail, including kinetics and thermodynamics of organic and inorganic compounds. Applications to industrial processes, such as drug delivery and chemical manufacturing, will also be explored. This course is critical to those students pursuing careers in atmospheric science and air pollution control, who will need to measure, model and control airborne particles.

The course will address chemical hazards that impact process safety – specifically fires, explosions and toxic effects. Students will learn how model consequences, model likelihood, analyze risk and evaluate risk. Students will be exposed to the most popular/widely used methods in industry. In addition, the course will also cover: Risk management – framework, description of risk concepts, risk reduction, managing residual risk; Process design and facility siting; Prevention and mitigation – safety systems -what they are, their design; A thorough description of risk evaluation – risk tolerance criteria – how they are established and used, risk informed decision-making, benefit cost analysis; Human factors – how human error affects process safety.

In this course, students will learn theoretical and practical aspects of Bioprocess Engineering which uses biological, biochemical, and chemical engineering principles for the conversion of raw materials to bioproducts in the food, pharmaceutical, fuel, and chemical industries, among others. Emphasis will be placed on the understanding of biomanufacturing principles and processes during the upstream production and downstream purification of bioproducts. Microbial and mammalian cell processes will be discussed. Basic concepts of scale up and the types of bioreactors used in industry will be introduced. Challenges in biomanufacturing and process validation will be discussed as well. The course includes (5) labs in which students will apply some of the concepts learned in class.

This course outlines the methodology for the modelling of biological systems and its applications. Topics will include a review of physical laws, selection of balance space, compartmental versus distributed models, and applications of the conservation laws for both discrete and continuous systems at the level of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. The course covers a wide range of applications including environmental issues, chemical and biochemical processes and biomedical systems.

This course outlines the methodology for the modelling of biological systems and its applications. Topics will include a review of physical laws, selection of balance space, compartmental versus distributed models, and applications of the conservation laws for both discrete and continuous systems at the level of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. The course covers a wide range of applications including environmental issues, chemical and biochemical processes and biomedical systems.

**Instructor:** R. Farnood

**Required Text(s):**

- Basmadjian, D. and Farnood, R., The Art of Modeling in Science and Engineering with Mathematica, CRC Press, 2nd Ed., 2007.

**Learning Outcomes:**

- Describe steady vs. unsteady, lumped versus distributed, and one-dimensional vs. 2 or 3 dimensional systems.
- Understand the utility of analytical, numerical, and statistical models in describing physical systems.
- Analyze complex systems by breaking it into smaller components and simplifying it.
- Apply conservation laws, constitutive equations, and auxiliary relationship to a system, including mass balance and continuity equation, stoichiometry and species balance, reaction kinetics, force balances, conservation of mechanical energy, thermal energy balance, Fourier Law of heat conduction, Fick’s Law of mass diffusion and species continuity equation, mechanics of materials, Newton’s law of viscosity, Darcy’s law for flow in porous media, and first Law of thermodynamics.
- Set up mathematical models by applying principles of algebra, calculus, and ordinary differential equations (ODEs)
- Apply Navier-Stokes equation, equation of change for internal energy, and equation of continuity for species to a system
- Solve the algebraic and / or differential equations describing a system to obtain a description of the behavior of the system.
- Validate predictions of a mathematical model against available data and observations
- Apply the above learnings for critical analysis of published literature
- Learn how to improve available models to better describe/predict the behavior of a physical system.

**Project(s):**

Term Project

- You need to find/choose a suitable 'problem', preferably from a scientific paper, but alternatively it may be designed based on your thesis research topic. It should be such that it can be formulated as an ODE and can be solved analytically.
- Once you found a suitable problem, you need to formulate an exam question based on the problem you have select. The exam question should include a detailed statement that is concise, clear and unambiguous, and also include an appropriate diagram.
- You need to solve the above-mentioned exam question in detail, analytically.
- You need to prepare a final project report that should include: a) the exam question that you designed, b) the detailed solution of that question, and c) a copy of the sources / literature you used.

This course will teach students about structure, properties and application of natural and biological materials, biomaterials for biomedical applications, and fibre reinforced composites including composites based on renewable resources. The course has a strong focus in fundamental principles related to polymeric material linear elasticity, linear viscoelasticity, dynamic response, composite reinforcement mechanics, and time-temperature correspondence that are critical to understand the functional performance of these types of materials. Novel concepts about comparative biomechanics, biomimetic and bio-inspired material design, and ecological impact are discussed. Key processing methods and testing and characterization techniques of these materials are also covered.

**Instructor:** N. Yan

This course exposes graduate students to the latest developments in a wide range of topics in Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry. Students are provided with a breadth of understanding of the current trends in the many fields which fall under the umbrella of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, through seminars given by internationally renowned experts through the Department’s Lectures at the Leading Edge series. This course is mandatory for all M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. students and is to be taken annually.

**Instructors:** J. Werber & N. Weckman

This course will focus on the mechanisms associated with the assembly of molecular and biomolecular systems, including colloids, small molecule organic crystals, and protein complexes. The goal of the course is to foster an understanding of the subtle interactions that influence the process of assembly, which has wide ranging implications in fields ranging from materials science to structural biology. Examples will be drawn from the current literature encompassing studies of self-assembly in solution, at surfaces, and into the solid state. Supplementary reading and a term project targeting some aspect of molecular assembly will be assigned.

The objective of this course is to develop fundamental aspects of microbiology and biochemistry as they relate to energetics and kinetics of microbial growth, environmental pollution and water quality, bioconversions, biogeochemical cycles, bioenergy and other bioproducts.

**Instructor:** E. Edwards

**Recommended Text(s):**

- Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 12
^{th}Edition (2009) or 13^{th}edition (2010), 14^{th}edition (2014), or 15^{th}edition (2018). Madigan, Martinko, Dunlap, Clark. Pearson Benjamin Cummings (a great book to have as a reference) - Available in electronic format - Rittmann, B. E. and P.L. McCarty. "Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications". 2
^{nd}edition (2020). McGraw Hill. (a fantastic book for engineers) https://www.accessengineeringlibrary.com/content/book/9781260441604

[A full (Y) course covering two sessions – September to April]

In order to create sustainable solutions to the world’s most important challenges, global development professionals must reach beyond the traditional boundaries of their field of expertise combining scientific/technological, business, and social ideas in an approach known as integrated innovation. In this project-based course, students from multiple disciplines (engineering, management, health and social sciences) will work together – using participatory methods with an international partner – to address a locally relevant challenge. Students will be expected to communicate with and understand team members from other disciplines, integrate their knowledge and experience of global issues in order to: (a) identify and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of existing technical approaches to addressing the challenge, (b) analyze the characteristics of existing social frameworks (ethical, cultural, business, political) (c) identify gaps and needs (d) propose an appropriate integrated solution approach that incorporates an analysis of the challenge through these disparate lenses. The final deliverables for addressing the challenge at the end of the school year will include: a prototype of the end product, a business plan, a policy analysis, and analysis of impact on global health.

The objective of this course is to convey an appreciation of the sources, behaviour, fate and effects of selected toxic compounds which may be present in the environment. Emphasis is on organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. The approach will be to examine, for each compound, physical and chemical properties, sources, uses, mechanisms of release into the environment, major environmental pathways and fates (including atmospheric dispersion and deposition), movement in aquatic systems (including volatilization, incorporation into sediments, biodegradation, photolysis, sorption), movement in soils, and bioconcentration. Toxicology and analytical methodology will be described very briefly. Each student will undertake a detailed individual study of a specific toxic compound.

This course covers basic surface physical chemistry relevant to applied science and engineering materials. Among the topics covered are: Surface structures of both crystalline and non-crystalline materials – relaxation, surface electronic structure – work function, band structure, interfacial phenomena, surface thermodynamics, the Gibbs construct, double layer theory, micellular structure, surface kinetics, catalysis, adsorption, adhesion and wetting. This is a companion course to JTC1135, APPLIED SURFACE ANALYSIS which covers analytical techniques for the study of surfaces and interfaces.

There is no single or simple analytical technique for the study of surfaces and interfaces. Multiple techniques are available, each limited in what it can reveal. A knowledge of most current analytical techniques, their strengths and limitations, is the main material delivered in this course. The fundamentals of the techniques will be presented sufficient to understand the techniques; the material will be presented in the context of relevant technological problems, including individual projects. The fundamentals of surface and interface chemistry is covered extensively in a separate companion course (JTC1134 Applied Surface and Interface Science – taught in alternate winter terms). No prerequisite knowledge of surface chemistry fundamentals is assumed.

This course presents an introduction to the science of biomaterials, focusing on polymeric biomaterials and biocompatibility. Topics include biomaterial surface analysis, hydrogel rheology and swelling, protein adsorption, cell adhesion and migration and the foreign body response. Primary focus is on implantable biomaterials but some attention will be given to applications of biomaterials in biotechnology and drug delivery. Specific device or other examples as well as the research literature will be used to illustrate the topic at hand.

* Required: Students need to have taken at least one Biology undergraduate course and should have taken a Polymers undergraduate course.